This review describes the main types of stabilisers with the focus on those categories for polyolefins. It also elucidates some of the physical and chemical aspects of such products when incorporated into the polymer matrix, discussing stability during weathering, heat ageing and processing. The review is supported by several hundred relevant abstracts selected from the Polymer Library.
Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films. Plastic films are high-performance materials which play an essential part in modern life. Plastic films are mostly used in packaging applications but as will be seen from this book they are also used in the agricultural, medical and engineering fields. The plastics films industry uses state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and is continuously seeking out new technologies to improve its performance. The understanding of the nature of plastic films, their production techniques, applications and their characterisation is essential for producing new types of plastic films. This handbook has been written to discuss the production and main uses of plastic films.
The purpose of the present series of publications is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complementary and ultimately more important objec tive is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on the basis of a firm mechanistic foundation. Research into the role of 'stable' free radicals as antioxidants and stabilisers for polymers has intensified in recent years. Nitroxyl radicals (nitroxides) were the earliest long-lived radicals to be investi gated in detail and Maslov and Zaikov review the developments that have taken place in understanding their reaction mechanisms from the time when they were first investigated in liquid hydrocarbon systems to the present day when their outstanding performance as light stabilisers has been the object of much scientific research. Although some features of their reactivity remain obscure, the authors approach the problem kinetically and indicate the factors limiting their effectiveness.
Polyolefins are one of the most widely used commercial polymers. This book reviews the most important polyolefins, including polyethylene and polypropylene. These versatile fibres are durable, chemically resistant, lightweight, economical and functional. Polyolefin fibres: industrial and medical applications provides a comprehensive review of the structure and properties of this group of fibres, together with methods to improve the functionality of polyolefins and their range of applications. The first set of chapters discusses the different types of polyolefins, their structural and chemical properties as well as their production methods. The second group of chapters examines how to improve the functionality of polyolefin fibres. A final group of chapters addresses how polyolefins can be incorporated into specific applications such as industrial, medical and automotive products. Written by a distinguished team of international contributors, Polyolefin fibres: industrial and medical applications is a quintessential reference for textile technologists, fibre scientists, yarn and fabric manufacturers and also those in academia. Reviews the most important polyolefins including polyethylene and polyproplene, their structural and chemical properties as well as production methods Examines methods to improve the functionality of polyolefin fibres including production methods and quality control
The purpose of this publication is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complemen tary and ultimately more important objective is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on a firm mechanistic foundation. With the continual increase in the number of commercial anti oxidants and stabilisers, often functioning by mechanisms not even considered ten years ago, there is a need for a general theory which will allow the potential user to predict the performance of a particular antioxidant structure under specific practical conditions. Any such predictive tool must involve a simplified kinetic approach to inhibited oxidation and, in Chapter 1, Denisov outlines a possible mechanistic approach with the potential to predict the most useful antioxidant to use and the limits of its usefulness. In Chapter 2, Schwetlick reviews the current state of knowledge on the antioxidant mechanisms of the phosphite esters with particular emphasis on their catalytic peroxidolytic activity. Dithiophosphate v vi PREFACE derivatives show a similar behaviour but for quite different reasons and, in Chapter 3, AI-Malaika reviews information available from analytical studies, particularly using 31p_NMR spectroscopy, to elucid ate the complex chemistry that leads to the formation of the antioxidant -active agents.
Technology & Engineering by Ann-Christine Albertsson
This industrially relevant resource covers all established and emerging analytical methods for the deformulation of polymeric materials, with emphasis on the non-polymeric components. Each technique is evaluated on its technical and industrial merits. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability. Extensively illustrated throughout with over 200 figures, 400 tables, and 3,000 references.
The additive families are considered with an outline of the technical issues and the trends driving the markets. The main marketplaces for each additive type are discussed and the trends outlined. It contains an overview of the significant trends in the four largest plastics market sectors: packaging, construction, automotive and electrical and electronics. The report focuses on the important issues within Europe, with comment on the relevant trends in North America and Asia. The report provides discussion of the trends in material consumption and specific additive groups. It also includes brief company news and information for some of the leading additive suppliers.
The breadth of scientific and technological interests in the general topic of photochemistry is truly enormous and includes, for example, such diverse areas as microelectronics, atmospheric chemistry, organic synthesis, non-conventional photoimaging, photosynthesis, solar energy conversion, polymer technologies, and spectroscopy. This Specialist Periodical Report on Photochemistry aims to provide an annual review of photo-induced processes that have relevance to the above wide-ranging academic and commercial disciplines, and interests in chemistry, physics, biology and technology. In order to provide easy access to this vast and varied literature, each volume of Photochemistry comprises sections concerned with photophysical processes in condensed phases, organic aspects which are sub-divided by chromophore type, polymer photochemistry, and photochemical aspects of solar energy conversion. Volume 34 covers literature published from July 2001 to June 2002. Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage in major areas of chemical research. Compiled by teams of leading authorities in the relevant subject areas, the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, with regular, in-depth accounts of progress in particular fields of chemistry. Subject coverage within different volumes of a given title is similar and publication is on an annual or biennial basis.