Reference

El riego en América Latina y el Caribe en cifras

Author:

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Reference

Page: 348

View: 237

This survey, presented in English and Spanish, covers 32 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The purpose of the survey is to: provide a clear picture of rural water resources management on a country basis with emphasis on irrigation, and featuring major characteristics, trends, constraints and perspectives; help support continental and regional analyses by providing reliable information and to serve as a tool for large scale planning and forecasting. The survey was done by means of: literature review; data collection using a questionnaire; data processing and critical analysis of the information; preparation of a country profile.
Political Science

Regional analysis of the nationally determined contributions in Latin America

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 64

View: 361

The main objective of this report is to provide a regional synthesis of the climate change mitigation and adaptation commitments in the agriculture and land use sectors set forth in the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) of countries in Latin America and to identify opportunities for enhancing mitigation and adaptation ambitions, capturing their synergies and leveraging climate finance and international support options in the region. It aims to guide FAO – and policy makers and practitioners in the region – committed to providing the country support required for accelerating progress on and scaling up NDCs in the agriculture and land use sectors, and ensuring that future commitments are clear, quantifiable, comparable, transparent and ambitious.
Nature

Stakeholder-oriented Valuation to Support Water Resources Management Processes

Author: Leon Hermans

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 75

View: 949

Today, raising capacity in water resources management entails supporting stakeholders and decision-makers to reach a common understanding on the priorities and necessary arrangements for sharing and allocating water-related goods and services. Valuation is central to this process, as setting priorities and making choices implies valuing certain uses and arrangements above others. Water valuation can help stakeholders to express the values that water-related goods and services represent to them. It also offers a means for conflict resolution and planning, informing stakeholders, supporting communication, and facilitating joint decision-making on priorities and specific actions. This report confronts concepts from the literature on water valuation with practical experiences from three local cases where an effort was made to embed existing valuation tools and methods in ongoing water resources management processes. It uses the lessons from this exploration to provide a first outline for a stakeholder-oriented water valuation process. This is expected to provide a useful starting point to help water professionals and policy-makers improve the use of water valuation as a means to support participatory processes of water resources management.
Technology & Engineering

Capacity Development in Irrigation and Drainage

Author: International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 88

View: 798

The consensus among policy-makers in the developing world and aid agencies is that a lack of capacity is constraining the development of irrigated agriculture. Although this concern is not new, it is now receiving much attention in the irrigation and drainage world, where it is becoming an issue in its own right rather than being embedded in infrastructure investment projects. In order to address this issue FAO Land and Water Development Division (AGL) organized a one-day workshop , which brought together a range of case studies from different parts of the world in order to demonstrate that capacity development should be central focus of future strategies on irrigation and drainage. This publication contains a synthesis of the workshop as well as three keynote papers prepared for the workshop based on the available literature and experiences. The complete workshop materials, which include several country papers and complementary documents, are included on a CD-ROM that accompanies this document
Arid regions agriculture

Deficit Irrigation Practices

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Arid regions agriculture

Page: 102

View: 930

In the context of improving water productivity, there is a growing interest in deficit irrigation, an irrigation practice whereby water supply is reduced below maximum levels and mild stress is allowed with minimal effects on yield. Under conditions of scarce water supply and drought, deficit irrigation can lead to greater economic gains than maximizing yields per unit of water for a given crop; farmers are more inclined to use water more efficiently, and more water-efficient cash crop selection helps optimize returns. However, this approach requires precise knowledge of crop response to water as drought tolerance varies considerably by species, cultivar and stage of growth. The studies present the latest research concepts and involve various practices for deficit irrigation. Both annual and perennial crops were exposed to different levels of water stress, either during a particular growth phase, throughout the whole growing season or in a combination of growth stages. The overall finding, based on the synthesis of the different contributions, is that deficit or regulated-deficit irrigation can be beneficial where appropriately applied. Substantial savings of water can be achieved with little impact on the quality and quantity of the harvested yield. However, to be successful, an intimate knowledge of crop behavior is required, as crop response to water stress varies considerably.
Technology & Engineering

Economic Valuation of Water Resources in Agriculture

Author: R. Kerry Turner

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 187

View: 438

The purpose of this report is to produce a review on water resource valuation issues and techniques specifically for the appraisal and negotiation of raw (as opposed to bulk or retail) water resource allocation for agricultural development projects. The review considers raw water in naturally occurring watercourses, lakes, wetlands, soil and aquifers, taking an ecosystem function perspective at a catchment scale, and takes account of the demands from irrigated and rainfed agriculture. It is hoped that the review will have particular application to developing countries where agreed methods for reconciling competing uses are often absent, but nevertheless takes account of valuation approaches that have been made in post industrial economies.
Nature

Irrigation in Africa in Figures

Author: Karen Frenken

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Nature

Page: 74

View: 243

The AQUASTAT programme was established to develop a comprehensive picture of water resources and irrigation in developing countries, and to give systematic, up-to-date and reliable information on water for agriculture and development. This report sets out an analysis of water availability and its use on the African continent and changes that have occurred over the last decade, with an emphasis on agricultural water use and management. The report includes a CD-ROM with detailed profiles on the situation in each of the 53 countries in Africa.
Technology & Engineering

Guidance on realizing real water savings with crop water productivity interventions

Author: Van Opstal, J., Droogers, P., Kaune, A., Steduto, P., Perry, C.

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 63

View: 434

This technical document contains clear and practical guidelines on how to implement real water savings in agriculture through interventions for enhancing crop water productivity. A distinction is made between real water savings and “apparent” water savings. Apparent water savings record reductions in water withdrawals but do not account for changes in water consumption. Real water savings record reductions in water consumption and non-recoverable return flows (runoff or percolation). This guidance document emphasizes the paradox of water savings at field and basin scales, which usually do not translate into increased water availability for other users, as is commonly believed.
Technology & Engineering

Yield gap analysis of field crops

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 82

View: 272

To feed a world population that will exceed 9 billion by 2050 requires an estimated 60% increase over current primary agricultural productivity. Closing the common and often large gap between actual and attainable crop yield is critical to achieve this goal. To close yield gaps in both small and large scale cropping systems worldwide we need (1) definitions and techniques to measure and model yield at different levels (actual, attainable, potential) and different scales in space (field, farm, region, global) and time (short and long term); (2) identification of the causes of gaps between yield levels; (3) management options to reduce the gaps where feasible and (4) policies to favour adoption of sustainable gap-closing solutions. The aim of this publication is to critically review the methods for yield gap analysis, hence addressing primarily the first of these four requirements, reporting a wide-ranging and well-referenced analysis of literature on current methods to assess productivity of crops and cropping systems.
Irrigation water

Water Quality Management and Control of Water Pollution

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Irrigation water

Page: 14

View: 359

The problem of future management of water quality in Asia is a complex one, and requires reexamination of a number of key areas--including technical, institutional, legal and governance issues. Within this context, FAO organized a Regional Workshop on Water Quality Management and Control of water Pollution which took place in Bangkok, Thailand form 26 to 30 October 1999. This publication contains the report and recommendations of the Workshop; the edited versions of 18 papers presented and discussed during the meeting and contained in the CD-ROM.
Business & Economics

Water Charging in Irrigated Agriculture

Author: Gez Cornish

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 82

View: 495

This document presents an analysis of experience in irrigation water charging, drawn from published literature and a series of six case studies. These sources provide a broad spectrum of experience from less-developed to more-developed countries. The aim has been to make an assessment of the claims concerning irrigation water charging as a tool for cost recovery (achieving financial sustainability) and demand management (achieving resource sustainability).
Technology & Engineering

Rethinking the Approach to Groundwater and Food Security

Author: Marcus Moench

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 51

View: 860

This study attempts to re-frame the current thinking on groundwater development and the implications for food security. Groundwater is important in agriculture as it provides a reliable fallback when rainfeeding fails. It is therefore instrumental in managing risk and optimizing food production. However accessing groundwater has become habit and turned to dependency. Resources limits on many key aquifers have been exceeded and competition for groundwater has become intense. This study highlights the role of adaptive strategies in dealing with aquifer management and indicates directions of research and management.
Business & Economics

Demand for Products of Irrigated Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: P. J. Riddell

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 127

View: 955

If irrigated production is to make a significant contribution to food security and economic growth in Sub Saharan Africa, it will have to be re-structured across the region as a whole. This is the main conclusion of a study undertaken by FAO to analyse the drivers of demand for irrigated production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Steeply rising commercial food import bills for staple crops across SSA are indicative of the level demand that is not being met from domestic production. The increase of area under equipped/spate irrigation for the whole of Africa over the last ten years amounts to 1.27 million ha, which is equal to about 127 000 ha a year. This rate of growth has proved too low to have an impact on food import bills and buffer regional food security. However, within subregional trading groups there is scope for consolidation of market supply. Irrigated production opportunities in SSA could be realised where natural resources and markets coincide, but only through a great deal more attention to costs of production, price formation, effective water allocation mechanisms, economically efficient water use and strong, responsive institutions.--Publisher's description.
Environmental impact analysis

Patagonian Shelf

Author: Ana Mugetti

Publisher:

ISBN:

Category: Environmental impact analysis

Page: 164

View: 360

This report presents the assessment of Patagonian Shelf and associated river basins. The report focuses on the La Plata River Basin, the second largest watershed in South America, and the South Atlantic Drainage System, comprising basins that drain large arid areas of Argentina and one of the world's largest continental shelves. Pollution in the La Plata River Basin has caused considerable environmental degradation while fishing has changed marine habitats and communities. The root causes of environmental degradation in the Argentinean and Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone and the Uruguay River Basin, shared by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, are identified and potential remedial policy options are presented.--Publisher's description
Patagonia (Argentina and Chile)

Patagonian Shelf

Author: A. Mugetti

Publisher: UNEP

ISBN:

Category: Patagonia (Argentina and Chile)

Page: 164

View: 432

This publication is one of a series of strategic impact assessments carried out as part of the Global International Waters Assessment Project (GIWA-UNEP/GEF) to evaluate the world's transboundary waters, in recognition of the links between freshwater and coastal marine environments and the effects of human activities. This report focuses on the Patagonian Shelf and associated river basins, particularly La Plata Basin, the second largest watershed in South America, and the South Atlantic Drainage System.
Business & Economics

Irrigation in Southern and Eastern Asia in Figures

Author: Karen Frenken

Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 487

View: 601

The AQUASTAT Programme was initiated with a view to presenting a comprehensive picture of water resources and irrigation in the countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean and providing systematic, up-to-date and reliable information on water for agriculture and rural development. This report presents the results of the most recent survey carried out in the 22 countries of the Southern and Eastern Asia region, and it analyzes the changes that have occurred in the ten years since the first survey. Following the AQUASTAT methodology, the survey relied as much as possible on country-based statistics and information.
Business & Economics

Irrigation in the Middle East Region in Figures

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 402

View: 921

This AQUASTAT report presents the most recent information available on water availability and its use in the 18 countries and territories in the Middle East region, with an emphasis on agricultural water use and management. It contains the relevant tables and maps, and a regional synopsis emphasizing the subregional characteristics of this large and diverse region. It also analyses the changes that have occurred since the first survey in 1997. Finally it gives a more detailed description of four transboundary river basins in the region, highlighting the different levels of cooperation and the agreements between countries located in the same river basin: the Euphrates–Tigris River Basin, the Kura–Araks River Basin, the Asi–Orontes River Basin and the Jordan River Basin.