This unique monograph covers recent theoretical and experimental results on the complex character of f electrons in materials containing lanthanides (rare earths) or actinides, such as alpha-cerium and delta-plutonium. It answers the urgent need for a general presentation of the body of experimental and theoretical results presently available in this challenging domain. Some of the fast developing applications of lanthanide and actinide materials are mentioned. Materials containing atoms with an open f shell have electronic and crystalline properties that are controlled by the localized or delocalized character of the f electrons. This book gives a theoretical discussion of the various spectroscopic methods that shed light on the character of the f electrons and on the connection between their localization and the properties of these materials. Part 1 covers the characteristics of the f electrons in atoms and solids and includes a discussion of the properties of lanthanides and actinides in connection with the f electrons. Part 2 describes the various spectroscopic methods that are used to establish the electronic distributions and energies of the states. Examples involve the determination of f electron distributions by high energy spectroscopy methods with separate treatment of the valence and core electrons. Part 3 concentrates on the theoretical treatment of electronic transitions involving f electrons and simulations of the lanthanide spectra, including comparison with the available experimental data. Part 4 discusses the localized or delocalized character of the f electrons in actinides and their compounds, including comparison (analogies & differences) between the 4f and 5f electron materials. This monograph should be of great value for researchers, academics and engineers working in the fields of high energy spectroscopy, electronic and nuclear science and technology, as well as materials involving rare earths and radio-elements.
With this book, we wish to honor the lifework of K. Alex Müller and present him with this book on the occasion of his 94th birthday. We are convinced that he will very much enjoy reading it. We would like to thank all contributors to this book, who addressed topics complementary and related to his work. The articles of the book represent the efforts in solid state physics – spanning more than 60 years – which have been groundbreaking in scientific and applied sciences. Many of the current hot topics are derived from this earlier work which has pioneered the way toward new experimental tools and/or refined techniques. From this point of view, the book presents, on one hand, a historical review and, on the other hand, a directory of possible future research.
This is the second volume of a comprehensive two-volume treatise on superconductivity that represents the first such publication since the earlier widely acclaimed books by R. Parks. It systematically reviews the basic physics and recent advances in the field. Leading researchers describe the state of the art in conventional phonon-induced superconductivity, high-Tc superconductivity, and in novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates. The second volume is largely concerned with novel superconductors, such as heavy-fermion metals and organic materials, and also includes granular superconductors. Important new results on current problems are presented in a manner designed to stimulate further research. Numerous illustrations, diagrams and tables make this book especially useful as a reference work for students, teachers and researchers. Volume 1 treats Conventional and High-Tc Superconductors (3-540-43883-1).
Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field. The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizing key developments in the early 1950s and 1960s, the book looks at how superconductivity started to permeate society and how most of today’s applications are based on the innovations of those years. It also explores the genuine revolution that occurred with the discovery of high temperature superconductors, leading to emerging applications in power storage and fusion reactors. Superconductivity has become a vast field and this full-color book shows how far it has come in the past 100 years. Along with reviewing significant research and experiments, leading scientists share their insight and experiences working in this exciting and evolving area.