Punching is considered to be one of the most difficult problems in structural concrete design and mechanical models or theoretical analyses were developed rather late in the history of concrete research attempts. This fib Bulletin reviews the development of design models and theoretical analyses since the CEB Bulletin 168 Punching Shear in Reinforced Concrete - State-of-the-Art Report published in 1985. The role of the concrete tensile strength was specially addressed. In this respect the present bulletin is also following-up the CEB Bulletin 237 Concrete Tension and Size Effects - Utilisation of concrete tension in structural concrete design and relevance of size effect - Contributions from CEB Task Group 2.7 published in 1997. Apart from new theoretical developments a comprehensive databank for comparisons with experimental evidence is included. About 400 punching tests were critically reviewed and evaluated in a consistent manner. This is thought to be the first step towards a generally agreed selection of reliable tests. The evident value of such a data bank is illustrated by comparisons carried out between the data and some of the analytical proposals as well as empirical code formulas. List of contents : (1) Introduction, (2) Code equations, (3) Mechanical models for punching, (4) New developments for mechanical models, (5) Numerical investigations, (7) Comparison of mechanical models and test results of slabs without shear reinforcement, (8) Comparison of code rules and tests of flat slabs without shear reinforcement, (9) Comparison of codes, models and tests of flat slabs with shear reinforcement, (10) Experimental investigations, (11) Summary and conclusions, References, Appendices : (I) Databank on slabs without shear reinforcement, (II) Databank on slabs with shear reinforcement, (III) Comparison of test data with code rules, (IV) Comparison of test data with selected models, (V) Notations.
The companion to Rex Ogle’s award-winning Free Lunch is a searing account of adolescence in a household torn by domestic violence. Punching Bag is the compelling true story of a high school career defined by poverty and punctuated by outbreaks of domestic abuse. Rex Ogle, who brilliantly mapped his experience of hunger in Free Lunch, here describes his struggle to survive; reflects on his complex, often paradoxical relationship with his passionate, fierce mother; and charts the trajectory of his stepdad’s anger. Hovering over Rex’s story is the talismanic presence of his unborn baby sister. Through it all, Rex threads moments of grace and humor that act as beacons of light in the darkness. Compulsively readable, beautifully crafted, and authentically told, Punching Bag is a remarkable memoir about one teenager’s cycle of violence, blame, and attempts to forgive his parents—and himself.
Technology & Engineering by fib Fédération internationale du béton
fib Bulletin 57 is a collection of contributions from a workshop on "Recent developments on shear and punching shear in RC and FRC elements", held in Salò, Italy, in October 2010. Shear is one of a few areas of research into fundamentals of the behaviour of concrete structures where contention remains amongst researchers. There is a continuing debate between researchers from a structures perspective and those from a materials or fracture mechanics perspective about the mechanisms that enable the force flow through a concrete member and across cracks. In 2009, a Working Group was formed within fib Task Group 4.2 "Ultimate Limit State Models" to harmonise different ideas about design procedures for shear and punching. An important outcome of this work was the ensuing discussions between experts and practitioners regarding the shear and punching provisions of the draft fib Model Code, which led to the organization of the Salò workshop. Invited experts in the field of shear and FRC gave 18 lectures at the workshop that was attended by 72 participants from 12 countries in 3 different continents. The contributions from this conference as compiled in this bulletin are believed to represent the best of the current state of knowledge. They certainly are of general interest to fib members and especially helpful in the finalization of the 2010 fibModel Code. It is hoped that this publication will stimulate further research in the field, to refine and harmonize the available analytical models and tools for shear and punching design.
The world around you is a dangerous place. It's teeming with savages, thugs, angry toddlers, and disgruntled clowns. And every one of them is secretly mulling a scenario that ends with them kicking you square in the junk. What do you do if you want to take on The Batman and live to brag about it to your kids? What do you do if a rabid alligator picks a fight with your little sister? What do you do if the beloved star of "Forrest Gump" tells you to "shut the hell up" in front of a huge crowd? You read this book. It offers simple, effective instructions for beating up zombies, robots, co-workers—anything. The only limits are your imagination... and your habit of not following through on things, and possibly your uncoordinated, at times comically frail body.
Keith Lowell Jensen thinks you should punch Nazis. In this collection of essays, stories, interviews, and rants, he tells us why. Jensen grew up and into the Sacramento punk music scene in the late eighties and early nineties, where weirdos, LGBTQ folk, feminists, and allies strived to carve out safe community spaces. This scene also attracted a different kind of outsider--white supremacists and Nazi skinheads—making for a politically charged and complicated landscape. In Punching Nazis, he reflects on his experiences with these racist fringe groups that infiltrated the progressive scene that gave rise to bands like Green Day. From unwittingly driving around in a lowrider with a gang called “The Suicidals,” to a night doing stand-up with a clown with an unwanted Swastika tattoo, Jensen brings his brand of subtle, sincere comedy to reflect on the complicated relationship that punk music has with racist skinheads and what we should do about it. In recent times, Americans are surprised to find groups like the Klan, and more recently the "Racial Realists" and the "Alt-Right," are still prominent, and now as they grow increasingly emboldened, it’s intriguing and valuable to hear tales of those who, through the love of punk rock music, have a history of dealing with racist fringe groups.