The use of antioxidants is widespread throughout the rubber, plastics, food, oil and pharmaceutical industries. This book brings together information generated from research in quite separate fields of biochemical science and technology, and integrates it on a basis of the common mechanisms of peroxidation and antioxidant action. It applies present knowledge of antioxidants to our understanding of their role in preventing and treating common diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, ischemia, pancreatitis, hemochromatosis, kwashiorkor, disorders of prematurity and disease of old age. Antioxidants deactivate certain harmful effects of free radicals in the human body due to biological peroxidation, and thus prevent protection against cell damage. The book is of considerable interest to scientists working in the materials and foodstuff industries, and to researchers seeking information on the connection between diet and health, and to those developing new drugs to combat diseases associated with oxidative stress. It is important also throughout the non-medical world, especially to the work force within the affected industries. Examines research in separate fields of biochemical science and technology and integrates it on a basis of the common mechanisms of peroxidation and antioxidant action Applies present knowledge of antioxidants to our understanding of their role in preventing and treating common diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and others
Maintaining a balance between depth and breadth, the Sixth Edition of Principles of Polymer Systems continues to present an integrated approach to polymer science and engineering. A classic text in the field, the new edition offers a comprehensive exploration of polymers at a level geared toward upper-level undergraduates and beginning graduate stu
The development of polymers as an important class of material was inhibited at the first by the premature failure of these versatile compounds in many applications. The deterioration of important properties of both natural and synthetic polymers is the result of irreversible changes in composition and structure of polymers molecules. As a result of these reactions, mechanical, electrical and/or aesthetic properties are degraded beyond acceptable limits. It is now generally recognized that stabilization against degradation is necessary if the useful life of polymers is to be extended sufficiently to meet design requirements for long-term applications. Polymers degrade by a wide variety of mechanisms, several of which affect all polymers through to varying degree. This monograph will concentrate on those degradation mechanisms which result from reactions of polymers with oxygen in its various forms and which are accelerated by heat and/or radiation. Those stabilization mechanisms are discussed which are based on an understanding of degradation reaction mechanisms that are reasonably well established. The stabilization of polymers is still undergoing a transition from an art to a science as mechanisms of degradation become more fully developed. A scientific approach to stabilization can only be approached when there is an understanding of the reactions that lead to degradation. Stabilization against biodegradation and burning will not be discussed since there is not a clear understanding of how polymers degrade under these conditions.
The purpose of this publication is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complemen tary and ultimately more important objective is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on a firm mechanistic foundation. With the continual increase in the number of commercial anti oxidants and stabilisers, often functioning by mechanisms not even considered ten years ago, there is a need for a general theory which will allow the potential user to predict the performance of a particular antioxidant structure under specific practical conditions. Any such predictive tool must involve a simplified kinetic approach to inhibited oxidation and, in Chapter 1, Denisov outlines a possible mechanistic approach with the potential to predict the most useful antioxidant to use and the limits of its usefulness. In Chapter 2, Schwetlick reviews the current state of knowledge on the antioxidant mechanisms of the phosphite esters with particular emphasis on their catalytic peroxidolytic activity. Dithiophosphate v vi PREFACE derivatives show a similar behaviour but for quite different reasons and, in Chapter 3, AI-Malaika reviews information available from analytical studies, particularly using 31p_NMR spectroscopy, to elucid ate the complex chemistry that leads to the formation of the antioxidant -active agents.
This book presents an exhaustive review on the use of polymers for food applications. Polymer-based systems for food applications such as: films, foams, nano- and micro-encapsulated, emulsions, hydrogels, prebiotics, 3D food printing, edible polymers for the development of foods for people with special feeding regimes, sensors, among others, have been analyzed in this work.
The history of the business and technology that was responsible for the enormous growth of the global polyethylene industry from the laboratory discovery in 1933 to reach an annual production of over 75 million metric tons in 2012 and become the leading plastic material worldwide. This book is an in-depth look at the history of the scientists and engineers that created the catalysts and the methods used for the modern commercial manufacture of polyethylene and its products. The book outlines the processes used for the manufacture of polyethylene are reviewed which include the high-pressure process and the three low-pressure processes; slurry, solution and the gas-phase methods. The techniques used to fabricate polyethylene into end-use products are reviewed with a discussion of blow-molding, injection molding, rotational molding, blown-film, cast-film and thermoforming are also discussed in detail.
The term latex covers emulsion polymers, polymer dispersions and polymer colloids. This review report provides a general overview of the emulsion polymerisation processes and explains how the resulting latices are used in industrial applications. The classes of emulsion polymers are surveyed and the commercial technologies and potential future uses discussed. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Polymer Library gives useful references for further reading.
Environmental considerations are increasingly shaping the development of many industries. This is an overview of surfactants and the environment. It goes on to look at new surfactants derived from renewable, "natural" resources such as sucrose, seaweed and starch. Other chapters review a decade of change in the surfactant industry and assess future market trends. Some of the developments in surfactant technology are presented, including "gemini" twin-chained surfactants, sulfobetaines, alkyl phosphates and the use of alkyl alkoxylates and alkyl glucosides in highly alkaline solutions. The volume takes a practical approach throughout.