The purpose of this publication is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complemen tary and ultimately more important objective is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on a firm mechanistic foundation. With the continual increase in the number of commercial anti oxidants and stabilisers, often functioning by mechanisms not even considered ten years ago, there is a need for a general theory which will allow the potential user to predict the performance of a particular antioxidant structure under specific practical conditions. Any such predictive tool must involve a simplified kinetic approach to inhibited oxidation and, in Chapter 1, Denisov outlines a possible mechanistic approach with the potential to predict the most useful antioxidant to use and the limits of its usefulness. In Chapter 2, Schwetlick reviews the current state of knowledge on the antioxidant mechanisms of the phosphite esters with particular emphasis on their catalytic peroxidolytic activity. Dithiophosphate v vi PREFACE derivatives show a similar behaviour but for quite different reasons and, in Chapter 3, AI-Malaika reviews information available from analytical studies, particularly using 31p_NMR spectroscopy, to elucid ate the complex chemistry that leads to the formation of the antioxidant -active agents.
Ever since the beginning of the plastics and rubber industry, it was realized that useful products could be produced only if cer tain additives were incorporated into polymers. With the help of these additives, when physically dispersed in a polymer matrix, it has been possible to improve stability against thermal, oxidative, UV, hydrolytic and biological degradation, mechanical properties, flammability, cost, and processibility of plastics. The enormous growth of the volume of plastics consumed by modern society, and new application areas for plastics, have created a demand for new, better additives and better understanding of their functions in polymer systems. As a result of these trends there is a need for sharing of information on progress achieved in the area of polymer additives among engineers and scientists of the plastics industry and academia. This book is based on expanded and updated papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Polymer Additives, which was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, and was sponsored by the American Chemical Society, Division of Polymeric Materials Science and Engi neering. The book is divided into five parts which cover advances in various areas of polymer additives. The first part is devoted to the progress in understanding of UV degradation and stabilization of various polymers. Oxidation degradation and stabilization of plastic materials is covered in the second part. New developments in the stabilization of PVC are presented in the third part.
The purpose of the present series of publications is two-fold. In the first place it is intended to review progress in the development of practical stabilising systems for a wide range of polymers and applications. A complementary and ultimately more important objec tive is to accommodate these practical developments within the framework of antioxidant theory, since there can be little question that further major advances in the practice of stabilisation technology will only be possible on the basis of a firm mechanistic foundation. Research into the role of 'stable' free radicals as antioxidants and stabilisers for polymers has intensified in recent years. Nitroxyl radicals (nitroxides) were the earliest long-lived radicals to be investi gated in detail and Maslov and Zaikov review the developments that have taken place in understanding their reaction mechanisms from the time when they were first investigated in liquid hydrocarbon systems to the present day when their outstanding performance as light stabilisers has been the object of much scientific research. Although some features of their reactivity remain obscure, the authors approach the problem kinetically and indicate the factors limiting their effectiveness.
This industrially relevant resource covers all established and emerging analytical methods for the deformulation of polymeric materials, with emphasis on the non-polymeric components. Each technique is evaluated on its technical and industrial merits. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability. Extensively illustrated throughout with over 200 figures, 400 tables, and 3,000 references.
Plastics are used worldwide in everyday life, e.g. as food packaging, electronics, construction, automotive parts, and household appliances. To produce these products with the desired service lifetimes the use of suitable stabilizers is necessary. This book provides a concise and comprehensive overview of the basic mechanisms of plastic degradation processes caused by heat and light. At its core is a detailed description of the stabilization of different polymers, including an explanation of stabilization mechanisms and the influence of commonly used additives such as fillers, flame retardents and pigments on the stability of plastic. Every polymer scientist, material technologist, or application engineer dealing with the design of the properties of plastics will benefit from this new overview.
"Cover-to-cover reading of Plastics Additives, Advanced Industrial Analysis, is recommended for both professional analysts and plastics technologists. Professor Bart’s prose style is easy to read. A professional background in analytical chemistry is not assumed. Particularly valuable is the trove of good advice as to which approach might be best in a given situation. Every department with a serious interest in additive / property relations should invest in a copy.” -- PMAD Newsletter. This industrially relevant and up-to-date resource deals with all established and emerging analytical methods for in-polymer additive analysis of plastics formulations. Quality assurance and industrial troubleshooting all benefit from direct analysis modes. Plastics Additives comprises detailed coverage of solid-state spectroscopy, thermal analysis and pyrolysis, laser techniques, surface studies and microanalysis along with process analytics, quantitative analysis and modern method development and validation applied to additives in polymers. The book is organised for quick and easy reference and is extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 300 flow diagrams and tables to facilitate rapid understanding of this topic, and it contains 4000 references. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability.
This review describes the main types of stabilisers with the focus on those categories for polyolefins. It also elucidates some of the physical and chemical aspects of such products when incorporated into the polymer matrix, discussing stability during weathering, heat ageing and processing. The review is supported by several hundred relevant abstracts selected from the Polymer Library.