Thermal analysis has proven to be one of the most important and meaningful test methods in the plastics industry and in testing laboratories. Although thermal analysis is used for fundamental studies related to materials science of polymers, its power lies in understanding this behavior during manufacturing processes. This understanding aids in process optimization, reduction of manufacturing cycle times, failure analysis as well as overall improvement of the material properties of the finished product, to name a few. In this book, the different test methods and their variations are described in detail, emphasizing the principles and their application in practice. Using practical examples, different approaches to problem solving are presented with a focus on the interpretation of the experimental results. Thermal analysis provides information on important properties of plastic materials, such as nucleation, crystallization, degree of crystallinity, recrystallization, melting and solidification, glass transition, curing and postcuring, thermal stability, thermal expansion, relaxation of orientation and internal stresses, pvT-data, and others. This book is a must for everybody involved in material and product development, testing, processing, quality assurance, or failure analysis in industry and laboratories. Contents: - Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) - Oxidative Induction Time/Temperature (OIT) - Thermogravimetry (TG) - Thermo-Mechanical Analysis (TMA) - pvT-Measurements - Dynamic-Mechanical Analysis (DMA) - Micro-Thermal Analysis - Brief Characterization of Key Polymers
"Cover-to-cover reading of Plastics Additives, Advanced Industrial Analysis, is recommended for both professional analysts and plastics technologists. Professor Bart’s prose style is easy to read. A professional background in analytical chemistry is not assumed. Particularly valuable is the trove of good advice as to which approach might be best in a given situation. Every department with a serious interest in additive / property relations should invest in a copy.” -- PMAD Newsletter. This industrially relevant and up-to-date resource deals with all established and emerging analytical methods for in-polymer additive analysis of plastics formulations. Quality assurance and industrial troubleshooting all benefit from direct analysis modes. Plastics Additives comprises detailed coverage of solid-state spectroscopy, thermal analysis and pyrolysis, laser techniques, surface studies and microanalysis along with process analytics, quantitative analysis and modern method development and validation applied to additives in polymers. The book is organised for quick and easy reference and is extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 300 flow diagrams and tables to facilitate rapid understanding of this topic, and it contains 4000 references. Emphasis is on understanding (principles and characteristics) and industrial applicability.
Plastics possess properties that have revolutionized the manufacture of products in the 20th century and beyond. It remains critical to understand their behavior throughout their life cycle, from manufacture to use and eventually to reclamation and disposal. This volume highlights the most prominent tools in physical and chemical analysis techniques and applications. A practical reference for performing measurements, solving problems, and investigating behavioral phenomena, the editors advocate a phenomenological approach, relying on case studies and illustrations to represent possible outcomes of each technique and presenting the basic governing equations where necessary.
This text details the design of cost-effective, environmentally friendly lubricant additive technologies and components for the automotive, industrial, manufacturing, food, and aerospace industries. Presenting methods to improve the performance and stability of lubricants, protect metal surfaces against wear, and to control deposits and contaminant
Preface. Dedication. List of Figures. List of Tables. List of Contributors. Basic Behavior and Site Characterization. 1. Introduction; R.K. Rowe. 2. Basic Soil Mechanics; P.V. Lade. 3. Engineering Properties of Soils and Typical Correlations; P.V. Lade. 4. Site Characterization; D.E. Becker. 5. Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Property Assessment; D.G. Fredlund, et al. 6. Basic Rocks Mechanics and Testing; K.Y. Lo, A.M. Hefny. 7. Geosynthetics: Characteristics and Testing; R.M. Koerner, Y.G. Hsuan. 8. Seepage, Drainage and Dewatering; R.W. Loughney. Foundations and Pavements. 9. Shallo.
This handbook provides an exhaustive description of polyethylene. The 50+ chapters are written by some of the most experienced and prominent authors in the field, providing a truly unique view of polyethylene. The book starts with a historical discussion on how low density polyethylene was discovered and how it provided unique opportunities in the early days. New catalysts are presented and show how they created an expansion in available products including linear low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, copolymers, and polyethylene produced from metallocene catalysts. With these different catalysts systems a wide range of structures are possible with an equally wide range of physical properties. Numerous types of additives are presented that include additives for the protection of the resin from the environment and processing, fillers, processing aids, anti-fogging agents, pigments, and flame retardants. Common processing methods including extrusion, blown film, cast film, injection molding, and thermoforming are presented along with some of the more specialized processing techniques such as rotational molding, fiber processing, pipe extrusion, reactive extrusion, wire and cable, and foaming processes. The business of polyethylene including markets, world capacity, and future prospects are detailed. This handbook provides the most current and complete technology assessments and business practices for polyethylene resins.
This book focuses on latent heat storage, which is one of the most efficient ways of storing thermal energy. Unlike the sensible heat storage method, the latent heat storage method provides much higher storage density with a smaller difference between storing and releasing temperatures. Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change Materials is structured into four chapters that cover many aspects of thermal energy storage and their practical applications. Chapter 1 reviews selection, performance, and applications of phase change materials. Chapter 2 investigates mathematical analyses of phase change processes. Chapters 3 and 4 present passive and active applications for energy saving, peak load shifting, and price-based control heating using phase change materials. These chapters explore the hot topic of energy saving in an overarching way, and so they are relevant to all courses. This book is an ideal research reference for students at the postgraduate level. It also serves as a useful reference for electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers and students throughout their work. FEATURES Explains the technical principles of thermal energy storage, including materials and applications in different classifications Provides fundamental calculations of heat transfer with phase change Discusses the benefits and limitations of different types of phase change materials (PCM) in both micro- and macroencapsulations Reviews the mechanisms and applications of available thermal energy storage systems Introduces innovative solutions in hot and cold storage applications
Reflecting the many changes in the field since the publication of the second edition, Corrosion of Ceramic Materials, Third Edition incorporates more information on bioceramics, including nanomaterials, as well as the weathering of construction materials. Adhering to the original plan of classification by chemistry, this edition reorganizes the top