Flexibility and productivity are hallmarks of human language use. Competent speakers have the capacity to use the words they know to serve a variety of communicative functions, to refer to new and varied exemplars of the categories to which words refer, and in new and varied combinations with other words. When and how children achieve this flexibility—and when they are truly productive language users—are central issues among accounts of language acquisition. The current study tests competing hypotheses of the achievement of flexibility and some kinds of productivity against data on children’s first uses of their first-acquired verbs. Eight mothers recorded their children’s first 10 uses of 34 early-acquired verbs, if those verbs were produced within the window of the study. The children were between 16 and 20 months when the study began (depending on when the children started to produce verbs), were followed for between 3 and 12 months, and produced between 13 and 31 of the target verbs. These diary records provided the basis for a description of the pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic properties of early verb use. The data revealed that within this early, initial period of verb use, children use their verbs both to command and describe, they use their verbs in reference to a variety of appropriate actions enacted by a variety of actors and with a variety of affected objects, and they use their verbs in a variety of syntactic structures. All 8 children displayed semantic and grammatical flexibility before 24 months of age. These findings are more consistent with a model of the language learning child as an avid generalizer than as a conservative language user. Children’s early verb use suggests abilities and inclinations to abstract from experience that may indeed begin in infancy.
Using both theoretical and language acquisition arguments, this study proposes a new model of the lexicon-syntax interface defined in terms of checking event-semantic features. The research is based on Dutch verbs and their possible verb frames (intransitive, transitive, etc.) and two studies of children's Dutch. The model developed from these cases represents more generally the way in which Universal Grammar organizes the lexicon of a language and the mapping system that associates a verb's lexical features with its syntactic projection.
The present book offers fresh insights into the description of ditransitive verbs and their complementation in present-day English. In the theory-oriented first part, a pluralist framework is developed on the basis of previous research that integrates ditransitive verbs as lexical items with both the entirety of their complementation patterns and the cognitive and semantic aspects of ditransitivity. This approach is combined with modern corpus-linguistic methodology in the present study, which draws on an exhaustive semi-automatic analysis of all patterns of ditransitive verbs in the British component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-GB) and also takes into account selected data from the British National Corpus (BNC). In the second part of the study, the complementation of ditransitive verbs (e.g. give, send) is analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Special emphasis is placed here on the identification of significant principles of pattern selection, i.e. factors that lead language users to prefer specific patterns over other patterns in given contexts (e.g. weight, focus, pattern flow in text, lexical constraints). In the last part, some general aspects of a network-like, usage-based model of ditransitive verbs, their patterns and the relevant principles of pattern selection are sketched out, thus bridging the gap between the performance-related description of language use and a competence-related model of language cognition.
The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non‐invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.
With a strong creative streak and a passion for learning and writing, Naomi Beth Wakan has dabbled in many different art forms during her eighty-eight years. Her activities have led her to see art as the awareness of sensory action and reaction in the everyday. In other words, opportunities for making art are everywhere, and the possibilities for expressing oneself as an artist are endless. One's very life is an art, if lived with awareness. In this collection of short essays, Wakan writes about her experiences as someone who both appreciates and practices art, covering topics such as ikebana, photography, reading, film noir, domesticity, recycling, personal essay writing, solitude, and more. This book will entertain, but also awaken the reader to the possibilities of living a rich and rewarding life by infusing one's life with awareness and creativity.
God Is a Verb! creates a radical paradigm shift. It is no longer possible to think of God as a big magician in the sky. Instead, we rethink everything as God being action and doing and making. God is not an “it,” but rather the process itself. God is unbounded action and thought. Selah! Stop and think about it! This insightful book takes a new look at the Age of Taurus when God purposefully established Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden with a specific purpose. They had to make a free-will choice to leave in order to choose to live according to the Golden Rule, by doing kindness to others and being grateful to God. He gave them the Book of Knowledge, of all things. Centuries later he completed the set by giving Noah the Jubilee calendar we still use today. Noah had exhibited the purpose God had wanted: relatedness. Noah missed his friends and asked God never to destroy peoples again. God cannot establish human free-will choices and relationships. Nor can he demand humans reflect back to him. These first covenants created our current paradigm for relatedness. The salient point is that our egos are not connected to God. They are our free will. Our body is a noun, the house for our soul, which is created in the image of God. Our soul is a verb. Lynn Keller, a graduate of Cornell University, was vice president of a transformative project based on the tree of life for three decades. She left in 2011 to pursue development of her original concepts. As a preschooler, Lynn proudly listened to Pap—her grandfather, P. H. Smith—talking to their minister about his sermon every week. This book is written for Pap’s descendants, in honor of his kindness, brilliance, and wisdom.
The term behavior modification refers to the systematic analysis and change of human behavior and the principal focus is on overt behavior and its relationships to environmental variables. Behavior modification can be applied in many settings, the nature of which helps to define its subsets. Thus, applied in clinical settings, toward clinical goals, it encompasses the subset behavior therapy. In Behavior Therapy with Children, Volume 2, Anthony M. Graziano focuses on behavior therapy--specifically, the behavioral treatment of children's clinical problems. The field of behavior modification encompasses an astonishingly wide and varied spectrum of concepts about and approaches to education, clinical problems, social programming, and rehabilitation efforts. A conceptually and technologically rich medium, it has been nourished by the psychology laboratory, the school, and the psychiatric clinic. It is an area with diffuse boundaries surrounding a highly active center, within which apparently solid landmarks have already been worn away by the dissolving action of corrective self-criticism--immeasurably aided by the catalysts stirred in by the field's many critics. The activity continues, the dynamic field boils, and the medium enriches itself. There appears to be a tendency, particularly among new behavior therapists, to limit their focus too narrowly to the client's systems of overt behavior. In this project, psychological therapy begins with a personal, interactive social situation in which the generally expected human response of interest, sympathy, and support, is the minimum condition. Graziano maintains that these clinical sensitivity skills must be preserved in behavior therapy and enhance its important contribution to advancing the therapeutic endeavor. Anthony M. Graziano is professor emeritus in the Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo. He has published a number of articles in journals on subjects such as teaching machine programs, behavior therapy with children, diagnostic testing, the history of psychology, and evaluations of the contemporary mental health professions. He has been on the editorial board of Behavior Modification and on the board of directors for the Eastern Psychological Association.
Based on an empirical study of English verbs, the author discusses to what extent complementation is predictable from meaning by examining whether semantically similar verbs also exhibit the same syntactic properties. The significant number of idiosyncrasies presented rigorously challenge approaches that assume meaning to be the determining force in complementation.