Author: Formerly Professor of Zoology Director Cowan Vertebrate Museum a University of British Columbia James N M Smith
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
This book explores the factors affecting the survival of small populations. As the human impact on Earth expands, populations of many wild species are being squeezed into smaller and smaller habitats. As a consequence, they face an increasing threat of extinction. National and international conservation groups rush to add these populations, species and sub-species to their existing endangered and threatened lists. In nations with strong conservation laws, listing often triggers elaborate plans to rescue declining populations and restore their habitats. The authors review these theoretical ideas, the existing data, and explore the question: how well do small and isolated populations actually perform? Their case study group is the song sparrows of Mandarte Island, British Columbia. This population is small enough and isolated enough so that all individuals can be uniquely marked and their survival and reproduction monitored over many generations. This is one of the strongest long-term ecological studies of a contained vertebrate population, now in its 31st year.
An innovative introduction to ecology and evolution This unique textbook introduces undergraduate students to quantitative models and methods in ecology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation. It explores the core concepts shared by these related fields using tools and practical skills such as experimental design, generating phylogenies, basic statistical inference, and persuasive grant writing. And contributors use examples from their own cutting-edge research, providing diverse views to engage students and broaden their understanding. This is the only textbook on the subject featuring a collaborative "active learning" approach that emphasizes hands-on learning. Every chapter has exercises that enable students to work directly with the material at their own pace and in small groups. Each problem includes data presented in a rich array of formats, which students use to answer questions that illustrate patterns, principles, and methods. Topics range from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population effective size to optimal foraging and indices of biodiversity. The book also includes a comprehensive glossary. In addition to the editors, the contributors are James Beck, Cawas Behram Engineer, John Gaskin, Luke Harmon, Jon Hess, Jason Kolbe, Kenneth H. Kozak, Robert J. Robertson, Emily Silverman, Beth Sparks-Jackson, and Anton Weisstein. Provides experience with hypothesis testing, experimental design, and scientific reasoning Covers core quantitative models and methods in ecology, behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and conservation Turns "discussion sections" into "thinking labs" Professors: A supplementary Instructor's Manual is available for this book. It is restricted to teachers using the text in courses. For information on how to obtain a copy, refer to: http://press.princeton.edu/class_use/solutions.html
Conservation and the Genetics of Populations gives acomprehensive overview of the essential background, concepts, andtools needed to understand how genetic information can be used todevelop conservation plans for species threatened withextinction. Provides a thorough understanding of the genetic basis ofbiological problems in conservation. Uses a balance of data and theory, and basic and appliedresearch, with examples taken from both the animal and plantkingdoms. An associated website contains example data sets and softwareprograms to illustrate population genetic processes and methods ofdata analysis. Discussion questions and problems are included at the end ofeach chapter to aid understanding. Features Guest Boxes written by leading people in the fieldincluding James F. Crow, Nancy FitzSimmons, Robert C. Lacy, MichaelW. Nachman, Michael E. Soule, Andrea Taylor, Loren H. Rieseberg,R.C. Vrijenhoek, Lisette Waits, Robin S. Waples and AndrewYoung. Supplementary information designed to support Conservationand the Genetics of Populations including: Downloadable sample chapter Answers to questions and problems Data sets illustrating problems from the book Data analysis software programs Website links An Instructor manual CD-ROM for this title is available. Pleasecontact our Higher Education team at ahref="mailto:[email protected]"[email protected]/afor more information.
Loss of biodiversity is among the greatest problems facing theworld today. Conservation and the Genetics of Populationsgives a comprehensive overview of the essential background,concepts, and tools needed to understand how genetic informationcan be used to conserve species threatened with extinction, and tomanage species of ecological or commercial importance. Newmolecular techniques, statistical methods, and computer programs,genetic principles, and methods are becoming increasingly useful inthe conservation of biological diversity. Using a balance of dataand theory, coupled with basic and applied research examples, thisbook examines genetic and phenotypic variation in naturalpopulations, the principles and mechanisms of evolutionary change,the interpretation of genetic data from natural populations, andhow these can be applied to conservation. The book includesexamples from plants, animals, and microbes in wild and captivepopulations. This second edition contains new chapters on Climate Change andExploited Populations as well as new sections on genomics, geneticmonitoring, emerging diseases, metagenomics, and more. One-third ofthe references in this edition were published after the firstedition. Each of the 22 chapters and the statistical appendix have aGuest Box written by an expert in that particular topic (includingJames Crow, Louis Bernatchez, Loren Rieseberg, Rick Shine, andLisette Waits). This book is essential for advanced undergraduate and graduatestudents of conservation genetics, natural resource management, andconservation biology, as well as professional conservationbiologists working for wildlife and habitat managementagencies. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations"www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations/a.
This impressive author team brings the wealth of advances in conservation genetics into the new edition of this introductory text, including new chapters on population genomics and genetic issues in introduced and invasive species. They continue the strong learning features for students - main points in the margin, chapter summaries, vital support with the mathematics, and further reading - and now guide the reader to software and databases. Many new references reflect the expansion of this field. With examples from mammals, birds,...
The main goal of this book is to encourage and formalize the infusion of evolutionary thinking into mainstream conservation biology. It reviews the evolutionary foundations of conservation issues, and unifies conceptual and empirical advances in evolutionary conservation biology. The book can be used either as a primary textbook or as a supplementary reading in an advanced undergraduate or graduate level course - likely to be called Conservation Biology or in some cases Evolutionary Ecology. The focus of chapters is on current concepts in evolution as they pertain to conservation, and the empirical study of these concepts. The balanced treatment avoids exhaustive reviews and overlapping duplication among the chapters. Little background in genetics is assumed of the reader.
This important work features discussions on the distribution and significance of genetic variation, management and evaluation of rare plant germplasm, and conservation strategies for genetic diversity.
H. REMMERT Small populations are very often discussed, but there seems to be no general overview touching all the self-evident but norma,lly simply neglected problems connected with small populations. First, there are many very different types of organisms, and as every biologist should know, the problems of small populations are very different in different types of organisms. 1. In vascular plants the problems are different from the situation in birds and mammals; in marine benthic animals or in parasites such as tapeworms the problems are different again, and in seasonal planktonic animals or insects they are different from those in biotopes under constant conditions. In tapeworms or in vascular plants, an adult organism seems to be comparable to a population of mammals or birds because its offspring can be so diverse and plentiful. 2. There are small populations which explode and break down to a small population again, and then explode and break down again.
One of the greatest unmet challenges in conservation biology is the genetic management of fragmented populations of threatened animal and plant species. More than a million small, isolated, population fragments of threatened species are likely suffering inbreeding depression and loss of evolutionary potential, resulting in elevated extinction risks. Although these effects can often be reversed by re-establishing gene flow between population fragments, managers very rarely do this. On the contrary, genetic methods are used mainly to document genetic differentiation among populations, with most studies concluding that genetically differentiated populations should be managed separately, thereby isolating them yet further and dooming many to eventual extinction! Many small population fragments are going extinct principally for genetic reasons. Although the rapidly advancing field of molecular genetics is continually providing new tools to measure the extent of population fragmentation and its genetic consequences, adequate guidance on how to use these data for effective conservation is still lacking. This accessible, authoritative text is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students interested in conservation biology, conservation genetics, and wildlife management. It will also be of particular relevance to conservation practitioners and natural resource managers, as well as a broader academic audience of conservation biologists and evolutionary ecologists.
It follows naturally from the widely accepted Darwinian dictum that failures of populations or of species to adapt and to evolve under changing environments will result in their extinction. Population geneti cists have proclaimed a centerstage role in developing conservation biology theory and applications. However, we must critically reexamine what we know and how we can make rational contributions. We ask: Is genetic variation really important for the persistence of species? Has any species become extinct because it ran out of genetic variation or because of inbreeding depression? Are demographic and environmental stochas ticity by far more important for the fate of a population or species than genetic stochasticity (genetic drift and inbreeding)? Is there more to genetics than being a tool for assessing reproductive units and migration rates? Does conventional wisdom on inbreeding and "magic numbers" or rules of thumb on critical effective population sizes (MVP estimators) reflect any useful guidelines in conservation biology? What messages or guidelines from genetics can we reliably provide to those that work with conservation in practice? Is empirical work on numerous threatened habitats and taxa gathering population genetic information that we can use to test these guidelines? These and other questions were raised in the invitation to a symposium on conservation genetics held in May 1993 in pleasant surroundings at an old manor house in southern Jutland, Denmark.
This book focuses on the use of molecular tools to study small populations of rare and endangered mammals, and presents case studies that apply an evolutionary framework to address innovative questions in the emerging field of mammalian conservation genomics using a highly diverse set of novel molecular tools. Novel and more precise molecular technologies now allow experts in the field of mammology to interpret data in a more contextual and empirical fashion and to better describe the evolutionary and ecological processes that are responsible for the patterns they observe. The book also demonstrates how recent advances in genetic/genomic technologies have been applied to assess the impact of environmental/anthropogenic changes on the health of small populations of mammals. It examines a range of issues in the field of mammalian conservation genomics, such as the role that the genetic diversity of the immune system plays in disease protection and local adaptation; the use of noninvasive techniques and genomic banks as a resource for monitoring and restoring populations; the structuring of population by physical barriers; and genetic diversity. Further, by integrating research from a variety of areas – including population genetics, molecular ecology, systematics, and evolutionary and conservation biology – it enables readers to gain a deeper understanding of the conservation biology of mammals that are at increasing risk of extinction at local, regional and global scales. As such, it offers a unique resource for a broad readership interested in the conservation biology of mammals and conservation management strategies to better preserve biodiversity.
In this collection, a team of leading biologists demonstrates why the burgeoning field of conservation biology must continue to rely on the insights of population genetics if we are to preserve the diversity of living species.
As anthropogenic environmental changes spread and intensify across the planet, conservation biologists have to analyze dynamics at large spatial and temporal scales. Ecological and evolutionary processes are then closely intertwined. In particular, evolutionary responses to anthropogenic environmental change can be so fast and pronounced that conservation biology can no longer afford to ignore them. To tackle this challenge, areas of conservation biology that are disparate ought to be integrated into a unified framework. Bringing together conservation genetics, demography, and ecology, this book introduces evolutionary conservation biology as an integrative approach to managing species in conjunction with ecological interactions and evolutionary processes. Which characteristics of species and which features of environmental change foster or hinder evolutionary responses in ecological systems? How do such responses affect population viability, community dynamics, and ecosystem functioning? Under which conditions will evolutionary responses ameliorate, rather than worsen, the impact of environmental change?
The presentations and discussions clarified certain controversial issues in conservation and wildlife biology, including factors influencing the viability of small wild and captive populations, minimum viable population sizes in wild and captive populations, and the consequences of small founder numbers for recovery of the species. These papers were useful in the decision-making stage of the recovery program and will assist in the return of the species to the wild-the goal of a recovery program.
Many endangered species of wild animals are managed in captivity through studbooks. In this book these data-rich resources are mined in innovative, integrated and statistically tested ways to maximise information gain for conservation practice – whether for captive or released/reintroduced or managed wild populations. This book is thus an important tool for all species managers, and for students and researchers in small population biology and wildlife conservation. The book's studbook analyses are grouped in three interrelated sections: natural history, demography and genetics. Statistical tests to determine the significance of results or to compare results between subgroups are undertaken throughout. Real studbooks of a variety of species, e.g. cranes, wolverines, blesbok, illustrate the practical applications and interpretations of the analyses and statistics. The “natural history” section presents analyses to determine baseline species information such as litter size, inter-birth interval, longevity and seasonality. “Demography” covers census(-style) analyses, age-class based life tables, comparative survival analyses and population projections. Solutions for dealing with small sample sizes are included.Inbreeding depression and unconscious selection form the main focus of the “genetics” section. Survival and life table analyses are used to assess inbreeding effects. Quantitative genetics methods are applied to natural history traits as a tool to monitor genetic variation. A fourth section on “conservation” shows how data from captive populations can be used where natural history data from wild populations are missing. A real example uses studbook data to inform Population Viability Analysis. The final section deals with issues related to incomplete and missing data and statistical topics. The purpose-written open-source software programs “Population Management Library (PML)” and “studbookR” used for analyses in the book, are available at www.princee.com.