Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary description of C and N fluxes between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere; issues related to C and N management in different ecosystems and their implications for the environment and global climate change; and the approaches to mitigate emission of greenhouse gases. Drawing upon the most up-to-date books, journals, bulletins, reports, symposia proceedings and internet sources documenting interrelationships between different aspects of C and N cycling in the terrestrial environment, Carbon and Nitrogen in the Terrestrial Environment fills the gap left by most of the currently available books on C and N cycling. They either deal with a single element of an ecosystem, or are related to one or a few selected aspects like soil organic matter (SOM) and agricultural or forest management, emission of greenhouse gases, global climate change or modeling of SOM dynamics.
Features review questions at the end of each chapter; Includes suggestions for recommended reading; Provides a glossary of ecological terms; Has a wide audience as a textbook for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and as a reference for practicing scientists from a wide array of disciplines
This volume is devoted to Earth surface environmental reconstructions and environmental changes that may be deciphered and modelled using stable isotopes along with mineralogical/chemical, sedimentological, palaeontological/biological and climatological methodologies. The book is divided into two sections, both using stable isotopes (see www.geolsoc.org.uk/SP507) in various samples and phases as the main research tool. The first section is devoted to studies focusing on the distribution of isotopes in precipitation, groundwater, lakes, rivers, springs, tap water, mine water and their relationship with terrestrial environments at regional to continental scale. In relation to this, the second section includes case studies from a range of continental settings, investigating cave deposits (stalagmites, bat guano), animal skeletons (dinosaurs, alligators, turtles, bivalves), present and past soils (palaeosols) and limestones. The sections focus on the interaction between the surficial water cycle and underground water storage with deposits acting as archives of short- to long-term climatic and environmental changes. Examples from the Early Cretaceous to present time come from Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America.
"Human activities impact the environment and modify the cycles of important elements such as carbon and nitrogen from local to global scales. In order to maintain long-term and sustainable use of the world's natural resources it is important that we understand how and why ecosystems respond to such changes. This book explains the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, using examples ranging from the Arctic to the tropics to demonstrate how they react under differing conditions. This knowledge is developed into a set of principles that can be used as starting points for analysing questions about ecosystem behaviour. Ecosystem dynamics are also considered, illustrating how ecosystems develop and change over a range of temporal and spatial scales and how they react to perturbations, whether natural or man-made. Throughout the book, descriptive studies are merged with simple mathematical models to reinforce the concepts discussed and aid the development of predictive tools"--
Soil Carbon Storage: Modulators, Mechanisms and Modeling takes a novel approach to the issue of soil carbon storage by considering soil C sequestration as a function of the interaction between biotic (e.g. microbes and plants) and abiotic (climate, soil types, management practices) modulators as a key driver of soil C. These modulators are central to C balance through their processing of C from both plant inputs and native soil organic matter. This book considers this concept in the light of state-of-the-art methodologies that elucidate these interactions and increase our understanding of a vitally important, but poorly characterized component of the global C cycle. The book provides soil scientists with a comprehensive, mechanistic, quantitative and predictive understanding of soil carbon storage. It presents a new framework that can be included in predictive models and management practices for better prediction and enhanced C storage in soils. Identifies management practices to enhance storage of soil C under different agro-ecosystems, soil types and climatic conditions Provides novel conceptual frameworks of biotic (especially microbial) and abiotic data to improve prediction of simulation model at plot to global scale Advances the conceptual framework needed to support robust predictive models and sustainable land management practices
The present volumes contain selected papers in the fields of Environmental Chemistry and Biology; Environmental Materials; Environmental Safety and Health; Environmental Planning and Assessment; Environmental Analysis and Monitoring; Environmental Engineering; Pollution Control Projects (Air, Water, Solid); Waste Disposal and Recycling; Water Supply and Drainage Engineering; Sound, Noise and Vibration Control; Clean Production Processes; Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering; Architectural Environment & Equipment Engineering; Soil and Water Conservation and Desertification Control; Environmental Protection; Cultivation and Conservation of Forest; Plant Protection and Biotechnology; Geographic Information and Remote Sensing Science; Land Resources Environment and Urban Planning. This up-to-date, comprehensive and worldwide state-of-the art knowledge will be of great value to anyone working in these fields.
MULTI-SCALE BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SOIL ECOSYSTEMS Provides a state-of-the-art overview of research in soil biogeochemical processes and strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation under climate change Food security and soil health for the rapidly growing human population are threatened by increased temperature and drought, soil erosion and soil quality degradation, and other problems caused by human activities and a changing climate. Because greenhouse gas emission is the primary driver of climate change, a complete understanding of the cycles of carbon and major nutritional elements is critical for developing innovative strategies to sustain agricultural development and environmental conservation. Multi-Scale Biogeochemical Processes in Soil Ecosystems: Critical Reactions and Resilience to Climate Changes is an up-to-date overview of recent research in soil biogeochemical processes and applications in ecosystem management. Organized into three parts, the text examines molecular-scale processes and critical reactions, presents ecosystem-scale studies of ecological hotspots, and discusses large-scale modeling and prediction of global biogeochemical cycles. Part of the Wiley - IUPAC Series on Biophysico-Chemical Processes in Environmental Systems, this authoritative volume: Provides readers with a systematic and interdisciplinary approach to sustainable agricultural development and management of soil ecosystems in a changing climate Features contributions from an international team of leading scientists Examines topics such as soil organic matter stabilization, soil biogeochemistry modeling, and soil responses to environmental changes Discusses strategies for mitigating greenhouse gas emission and improving soil health and ecosystems resilience Includes an introduction to working across scales to project soil biogeochemical responses to climatic change Multi-Scale Biogeochemical Processes in Soil Ecosystems: Critical Reactions and Resilience to Climate Changes is essential reading for scientists, engineers, agronomists, chemists, biologists, academic researchers, consultants, and other professionals whose work involves the nutrient cycle, ecosystem management, and climate change.
The research of the last decade has demonstrated that ecosystems and human systems are influenced by multiple factors, including climate, land use, and the by-products of resource use. Understanding the net impact of a suite of simultaneously occurring environmental changes is essential for developing effective response strategies. Using case studies on drought and a wide range of atmosphere-ecosystem interactions, a workshop was held in September 2005 to gather different perspectives on multiple stress scenarios. The overarching lesson of the workshop is that society will require new and improved strategies for coping with multiple stresses and their impacts on natural socioeconomic systems. Improved communication among stakeholders; increased observations (especially at regional scales); improved model and information systems; and increased infrastructure to provide better environmental monitoring, vulnerability assessment, and response analysis are all important parts of moving toward better understanding of and response to situations involving multiple stresses. During the workshop, seven near-term opportunities for research and infrastructure that could help advance understanding of multiple stresses were also identified.