remnants of gene pools of these species. Badghyz Natural Reserve, established in 1941, became a refuge for the last existing population of the Turkmen onager (Equus hemionus onager) and a unique pistachio woodland. A new generation oflocal Turkmen scientists, many of whom were trained by the Russian researchers in the graduate schools of Moscow and Leningrad arose from the 1930s through the 1950s. The Turkmen Academy of Sciences and its journal, Proceedings (including the monthly biological series), served to record the results of diverse biological studies in the republic. While basic science in the Middle Asian republics rather gained from the Russian "colonial" influence, natural resources, in contrast, were severely damaged by the Soviet way of handling the economy and social issues. Severe environmental problems have been inherited by the now independent Turkmenistan, including overgrazed desert pastures, deforested mountains, depleted water resources, accumulated pesticides in cotton fields, declining populations of endangered species of animals and plants, and - worst of al- progressing, human-caused desertification (Kharin this volume). In order to approach a solution to these problems, scientists and officials in the republic will need the close attention and help of the international scientific community.
This text provides a source of citations to North American scholarships relating specifically to the area of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It indexes fields of scholarship such as the humanities, arts, technology and life sciences and all kinds of scholarship such as PhDs.
This book presents an overview study about plant biogeography and vegetation of the high mountains of Central and South-West Asia, by a group of specialists familiar with its area and plant growth and ecology. This book discusses its ecological and evolutionary drivers and also its conservation priorities. Central and South-West Asia is one of the most diverse areas in the northern hemisphere and several biodiversity hotspots are concentrated in this region. Most of the biodiversity hotspots are associated with high mountain ranges of the region. Moreover, these mountains have been immigration corridors for the Central Asian flora to reach Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions. Despite its importance, there is no overview publication to present the plant biogeography and vegetation of these mountains and most of the publications are local or rather imprecise
In Origins of Agriculture in Western Central Asia, archaeologist David R. Harris addresses questions of when, how, and why agriculture and settled village life began east of the Caspian Sea. The book describes and assesses evidence from archaeological investigations in Turkmenistan and adjacent parts of Iran, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan in relation to present and past environmental conditions and genetic and archaeological data on the ancestry of the crops and domestic animals of the Neolithic period. It includes accounts of previous research on the prehistoric archaeology of the region and reports the results of a recent environmental-archaeological project undertaken by British, Russian, and Turkmen archaeologists in Turkmenistan, principally at the early Neolithic site of Jeitun (Djeitun) on the southern edge of the Karakum desert. This project has demonstrated unequivocally that agropastoralists who cultivated barley and wheat, raised goats and sheep, hunted wild animals, made stone tools and pottery, and lived in small mudbrick settlements were present in southern Turkmenistan by 7,000 years ago (c. 6,000 BCE calibrated), where they came into contact with hunter-gatherers of the "Keltiminar Culture." It is possible that barley and goats were domesticated locally, but the available archaeological and genetic evidence leads to the conclusion that all or most of the elements of the Neolithic "Jeitun Culture" spread to the region from farther west by a process of demic or cultural diffusion that broadly parallels the spread of Neolithic agropastoralism from southwest Asia into Europe. By synthesizing for the first time what is currently known about the origins of agriculture in a large part of Central Asia, between the more fully investigated regions of southwest Asia and China, this book makes a unique contribution to the worldwide literature on transitions from hunting and gathering to agriculture.
This book offers a concise description of the environment and water resources in Turkmenistan. The focus is on the water bodies of Turkmenistan – the Caspian Sea, Kara-Bogaz-Gol Bay, Sarykamysh Lake, Amu Darya River, and the Karakum Canal. Respected experts from six different countries cover the landscape-geographical features, the Karakum Desert, biodiversity (especially of birds and fishes) and ecosystems, as well as regional climate change. Special attention is paid to the Altyn Asyr Lake water reclamation project, to the morphometric characteristics of the Karashor Depression, and to the four-year-long satellite monitoring of the construction area in the vicinity of the Karashor Depression. The information presented is based on observational data and scientific literature, mainly published in Russian. This is the first English book on the Altyn Asyr Project. It addresses specialists working in various fields of environmental problems and ecology, water resources and management, land reclamation and agriculture, regional climate change, and international cooperation in the water sector in Turkmenistan and Central Asia.
Nouragues is a tropical forest research station in French Guiana. It was established in 1986 for research on natural mechanisms of forest regeneration. Since then a lot of research has been done on this and related topics. This book provides an overview of the main research results, and focuses on plant communities, vertebrate communities and evolutionary ecology, frugivory and seed dispersal, and forest dynamics and recruitment. The appendices give (annoted) checklists of plants, birds, mammals, herpetofauna and fishes found in the same area.
This volume merges all geographical and paleogeographical data on all groups of the arachnofauna. The book features topics such as the ecological factors, climate and other barriers that influence the distribution of arachnida. It also elaborates on the characteristics of the distribution such as arachnida at high altitude (e.g. Himalaya), in caves, in polar regions and highlights differences between the arachnofauna of e.g. Mediterranean regions vs Central Europe, West African vs Indomalayan and more. Furthermore, amongst other topics the volume also includes chapters on the systems of arachnida, fossil orders, dispersal and dispersion, endemics and relicts, regional arachnogeography, cave and high altitude arachnida.
The period c. 10,000-5000 BC witnessed fundamental changes in the human condition with societies across the Fertile Crescent shifting their alignment from millennia-old practices of seasonally mobile hunting and foraging to year-round sedentism, plant cultivation and animal herding. The significant role of Iran in the early stages of this transition was recognised more than half a century ago but has not been to the fore of academic consciousness in recent decades. In the meantime, investigations into Neolithic transformation have proceeded apace in all other regions of the Fertile Crescent and beyond. Here, 18 studies attempt to redress that balance in re-assessing the role of Iran in the early neolithisation of human societies. These studies, many of them by Iranian scholars, consider patterns of change and/or continuity across a variety of topographical landscapes; investigate Neolithic settlement patterns, the use of caves, animal exploitation and environmental indicators and present new insights into some well-known and some newly investigated sites. The results re-affirm the formative role of this region in the transition to sedentary farming.
This collection traces how pastoralists have coped with the challenges of change in a part of the world with a long-tradition of livestock keeping. Their precarious position - balanced between a market system where only the fittest may survive, and their attempt to remain a human resource for the future development of the natural pastures and livestock industry - is carefully and critically examined by the contributors. The pastoralists' unique skills at managing livestock in a variable and challenging environment, and their ability to supply commodities much in demand mean that an understanding of their societal position is essential for anyone interested in transition in the former Soviet Union.
The state of our planet continues to deteriorate at an alarming rate. We have arrived at a situation where we need to determine urgent solutions before we reach a point of irreversible deterioration. Much has been written in different contexts about reaching sustainability but the concept itself needs to be defined in the framework of all different disciplines in order to arrive at optimal solutions. Hence this book is essentially trans-disciplinary in order to find appropriate sustainable solutions, involving, collaboration across a wide range of disciplines. Publishing papers from the First International Conference on Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards, the book features articles encompassing topic areas such as: Water Resources; Air; Soil; Ecology; Health Risk; Energy; Planning and Development; Political and Social Issues; The Re-Encounter; New Technologies; Learning from Nature; Safety.